Who will this be the most beneficial for? Fully nomadic and location-independent workers.
Difficulty of applying from 1-5: 1 - Easiest
What % of the process can be done online? 100%
Are there any citizens of specific countries that can’t apply? Currently, Russian and Belarussian applicants will not be accepted.
The EstonianE-Residency gives non-Estonian residents the right to create a company in Estonia and take advantage of the country's favorable tax rates. On top of being one of Europe's most dynamic start-up environments, Estonia is also one of its least bureaucratic. This makes for one of the easiest options for gaining a tax residency, with a simple application process that is open to all countries and can be done completely online.
To become an EstonianE-Resident, you will first need to set up an Estonian-based company. After that, the company becomes the tax resident, not the individual who set it up.
This company would then be eligible for 0% tax on corporate profits generated both inside and outside of the country. Any income withdrawn from the company for personal use (dividends) will be taxed at 20%. If dividends are drawn on a recurring basis, then a 14% tax will be applied instead, with an additional 7% of income tax on top of that for non-residents, bringing the total amount of tax to around 20%.
Not exactly. The 20% and 14% tax is a Corporate Income Tax (CIT). It is only liable to the company, not the individual. If you are a tax resident of another country that taxes foreign income, you cannot claim tax deductions for the dividends you have received, as these have not been taxed as Personal Income Tax (PIT).
However, when dividends are withdrawn and the 14% Corporate Income Tax is applied, the 7% income tax becomes Personal Income Taxmeaning you can claim tax deductions. Let’s break this down - if you are from a country that has a 15% PIT tax for foreign dividend income and also has a Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) with Estonia, you can claim a tax credit on the payment of 7% PIT you made within Estonia and only pay an extra 8% tax within your country of residence instead of 15%. Why is this important? Because although in either of these cases, you are eligible to pay 20% tax in Estonia, if you are a tax resident of another country that taxes foreign income and has a DTA with Estonia, you might end up paying fewer taxes overall by being able to claim tax credits giving you an extremely favorable rate altogether.
Yes, you also have the option to apply for a Digital Nomad visa. This visa is temporary and valid for one year at a time.
This visa gives you the right to reside, work and be a temporary tax resident of Estonia. Still, it does not act as a path toward citizenship or permanent residence. Digital nomads who have not established E-Residency will be taxed at 20% for the entirety of their income. Generally, it makes sense for holders of this Visa to apply for E-Residency as well, for both liability purposes and to take advantage of the more tax rates discussed above.
🟢 Low levels of bureaucracy 🟢 Simple application process 🟢 0% tax on corporate profits generated both inside and outside of Estonia 🟢One of the lowest tax rates on dividends in Europe.
🔴 Although the E-residency does allow you to set up a company and pay taxes within the country, it does not guarantee tax residency if a candidate stays for less than 6 months 🔴 Requires you to set up a company 🔴 Although E-Residency gives you access to Estonian taxes and services, it does not give you any special right to enter the country 🔴 E-Residency does not grant you the right to reside and be a tax resident as an individual within the country unless you’re already an EU citizen 🔴 Although a company registered through the E-residency will be subject to a low tax rate, it may still be liable to extra foreign dividend tax withholdings in its country of residence.
The application process takes around 30 minutes online as long as you have all your documents prepared. Once an account has been created on the EstonianE-Residency portal, you will have two months to complete your application before your user account expires.
Who is eligible?
- Remote workers who can do their jobs independently of location - Individuals who either have an active employment contract with a company registered outside of Estonia, conduct business through their own company registered abroad, or work as a freelancer for clients mostly outside of Estonia.
- Individuals who can provide evidence that their income meets the minimum threshold during the six months preceding application. Currently, the monthly income threshold is €3504 (gross of tax).
- A detailed explanation relating to why you want to apply as an E-resident
- An updated CV
- Information relating to your business activity
- Copy of your identity document
- Photo of your face
- A valid VISA or MasterCard credit/debit card.
How to apply?
Fill in the application form online. The state fee is €80 for a Type C (short stay) visa and €100 Type D (long stay) visa. After that, schedule an appointment at your nearest Estonian Embassy or Consulate to submit your application. Make sure you bring copies of any required supporting documents. The applications will be reviewed within 30 days.
Fees: Expect to pay between 400-600 Euros in multiple fees. This also covers the cost of setting up a virtual business address and opening of an online bank account.
"The set-up for E-Residency was super easy and straightforward. What I liked most is that in order to help you qualify, you are encouraged to sign up with an accountant, which ended up making my life easier. The accountant was able to clearly tell me what documents I needed to provide, and then that was it; I obtained the E-residency! Overall, it was a great experience, and now I don't have to worry about any further documentation or regulations." Natascha Winkler - Head of Customer Service, SafetyWing
Through launching the E-Residency and Digital Nomad Visa, Estonia has nurtured a thriving start-up scene, becoming home to more private businesses and high-grossing tech unicorns than any other small country in the world. These businesses had a valuation of over 1 billion USD per capita in 2018.
Disclaimer: SafetyWing and its affiliates do not provide tax, legal or accounting advice. This material has been prepared for informational purposes only, and is not intended to provide, and should not be relied on for, tax, legal or accounting advice. You should consult your own independent tax, legal and accounting advisors before making any decisions or engaging in any transaction.